прочитал я про новый Cadillac Escalade Hybrid 2008-9 и сильно удивился паспортным его параметрам - "по городу" расход топлива был обьявлен в 11-12литров на сотню! и это при 6.2 литровом(!) моторе на борту!
Решил я разобраться как они это достигли. Даже сьездил на площадку в Киеве где стоит один(и наверное единственный) такой аппарат.
Так вот - GM не зря лидер в автомобилестроении - они сделали интересную коробку передач(модель М99), внутри которой два электромотора на постоянных магнитах(!) мощностью каждый по 65кВт !
При этом, я уверен, разгонная динамика у этого Cadillac Escalade Hybrid будет лучше чем у чисто бензинового, к тому-же Cadillac Escalade Hybrid легче (как ни странно) своего бензинового собрата почти на 350кг.
В машине отсутствуют стартер и генератор
...два мотора решают все эти задачи.
Смотрите сами красивое техническое решение GM (картинки далее)Описание как все это устроено и работает:Hybrid Transmission Modes of Operation
Upon the driver removing their foot from the brake pedal and depressing the accelerator, the vehicle will launch in electric mode. Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch is locked and motor 2 provides output torque to the wheels. Under low speed driving conditions the vehicle operates in full-electric mode without starting the engine or using motor 1. DC power from the battery flows to the HPCM where it is converted into 3-phase AC power to drive motor 2. The auxiliary oil pump runs to provide oil to the transmission for lubrication and hydraulic control. The vehicle continues to operate in electric-only mode, until additional power is required to accelerate the vehicle. At that point the engine starts.EVT Mode 1
After the engine is started the system operates in EVT Mode 1 which is used for low speed urban driving conditions. Utilizing an input split configuration, engine simultaneously drives motor 1 to both generate electricity to charge the hybrid battery and provide power through the mechanical gearing in the transmission to the wheels. The power generated by motor 1 is stored in the battery while motor 2 draws battery power to provide additional output torque. Depending on driving conditions the engine will operate in either 4 or 8-cylinder mode to optimize fuel consumption while maintaining output power requirements. Combining EVT operation with Active Fuel Management (AFM) allows the engine to operate in 4-cylinder mode over a wider range of operating conditions than a non-hybrid vehicle. EVT and AFM are synergistic technologies that enable greater fuel economy when combined together than when either technology is used independently. Motor 2 provides output power to augment the engine in 4-cylinder mode and motor 1 can be used to provide torque smoothing.EVT Mode 2
As vehicle speed increases, the system shifts to EVT Mode-2. EVT Mode 2 uses a compound split configuration to transfer power through the transmission during higher speed operating conditions such as highway cruising. Similar to EVT Mode 1, engine power is used to both generate electricity through the motors and provide output torque via the mechanical gearing in the transmission. A synchronous shift point allows the 2-Mode transmission to shift between EVT Mode 1 and Mode 2 without changing speed. The compound split configuration reduces overall electrical power required during higher speed operation. Combining the input power split and compound split configurations results in the two EVT modes of operation, provides three mechanical operating points in the transmission, and lowers the overall electro-mechanical power required across the range of vehicle operation as compared to a single mode system.Fixed Gear Operation
Fixed gear operation is achieved by selectively locking Clutches in the transmission to transmit engine power through a mechanical path without the use of electric motors. Advantages of having fixed ratios include the ability to increase engine size without having to increase motor size and improved towing, climbing, and maximum acceleration performance which are particularly important. In fixed gear modes the motors can be used entirely for power assist, rather than partially to carry power through the transmission. Furthermore, the motors can be partially powered down during cruising conditions.Regenerative Braking
Regenerative braking is enabled in both EVT Mode 1 and Mode 2. As the driver lifts their foot from the accelerator pedal and depresses the brake pedal the electric motors are used to decelerate the vehicle by applying negative torque to the output shaft and generate electricity thereby charging the battery. The 3-phase AC power generated by the motor is converted to high-voltage DC power in the HPCM and stored in the battery. The Hybrid Operating System coordinates requests for negative torque requests from the electronic brake module with electric motor and engine control functions.Engine Start-Stop
As the driver depresses the accelerator pedal further, demanding increased vehicle acceleration, motor 1 is used to start the engine while the Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch remains locked and motor 2 simultaneously provides output power to the wheels. During the engine start event motor 1 also provides active damping to reduce torque disturbances from engine cylinder firing pulses, and motor 2 is used to damp driveline disturbances. During this event the inverter draws DC power from the battery and converts it to AC power for both motors. They HPCM controls each motor's speed and power independently. The HPCM determines when to stop the engine and when to restart based on vehicle operating conditions and optimal hybrid battery power and fuel consumption. The engine is stopped at idle and during deceleration maneuvers to improve fuel economy.Reverse
When the vehicle is placed in reverse the Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch is locked and Motor 2 spins backwards and provides output torque to the wheels. When needed the engine starts and Motor 1 is used to charge the hybrid battery and DC power from the battery flows to the HPCM where it is converted into 3-phase AC power to drive motor 2.Typical Vehicle Launch
The engine is idling at the stop, and the accelerator pedal is depressed at the 10-second mark. The vehicle is launched in Mode-1 (M1), where MG-2's speed rises with vehicle speed, and MG-1 is used to optimize the engine speed. As the vehicle speed, and thus MG-2 speed, rises to the range where fixed Gear-1 (G1) is available, if the real-time energy optimizer control system deems that G1 would be advantageous, MG-1 is used to synchronize the engine speed for G1, to the MG-2 speed. At this point, the two MG speeds and the engine speed are synchronous, and clutch 1-3 Clutch is applied, while clutch Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch continues to be applied.
At shift, the system shifts back to EVT Mode-1 (M1) To initiate this shift, the MGs are controlled to unload clutch 1-3 Clutch, before its release. Once only Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch is applied, the MGs are used to control the engine speed to the optimal value for M1 operation.
At the next shift, the system shifts from M1 to fixed Gear-2 (G2). To execute this shift, the MGs are used to synchronize the planet-carrier speeds to apply Hybrid Direct 2-3-4 Clutch. With Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch still applied, the transmission is in a fixed gear with a ratio of 1.70:1. This is the ratio below (numerically) which EVT Mode-2 (M2) and the higher fixed gears 3 and 4 take over.
At the next shift, the system shifts from G2 to M2. First, the MGs are used to unload Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch before Hybrid Low 1-2 Clutch is released. Once only Hybrid Direct 2-3-4 Clutch is applied, the MGs are used to control the engine speed to the optimal value for M2 operation. The ratios possible in M2 range from 1.70:1 to an overdrive value of approximately 0.50:1.
At the next shift, the system shifts from M2 to Gear-3 (G3). The MGs are used to synchronize MG-1 and MG-2 to the engine speed for G3 in order to apply 1-3 Clutch. With Hybrid Direct 2-3-4 Clutch still applied, the transmission is in a fixed gear with a ratio of 1.00:1.
Finally, at the last shift, the system shifts from G3 to Gear-4 (G4). The MGs are used to unload 1-3 Clutch before 1-3 Clutch is released. Once only Hybrid Direct 2-3-4 Clutch is applied, the MGs control the engine speed to the gear-4 value, and MG-2 is electrically braked to a stop to apply 4th Clutch. With Hybrid Direct 2-3-4 Clutch and 4th Clutch applied, the transmission is in fixed gear with an overdrive ratio of 0.74:1.